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Electrochemical technologies for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances mitigation in water.


"Water treatment technologies are needed that can convert per- and polyfluoroalkyl

substances (PFAS) into inorganic products (e.g., CO2, F ) that are less toxic than parent PFAS compounds. Research on electrochemical treatment processes such as electrocoagulation and electro oxidation has demonstrated proof-of-concept PFAS removal and destruction. "

"However, research has primarily been conducted in laboratory matrices that are electrochemically favorable (e.g., high initial PFAS concentration [μg/L–mg/L], high conductivity, and absence of oxidant scavengers). Electrochemical treatment is also a

promising technology for treating PFAS in water treatment residuals from nondestructive technologies (e.g., ion exchange, nano-filtration, and reverse osmosis). "

"Future electrochemical PFAS treatment research should focus on environmentally relevant PFAS concentrations (i.e., ng/L), matrix conductivity, natural organic matter impacts, short-chain PFAS removal, transformation products analysis, and systems-level analysis for cost evaluation. "

"Ti4O7-electro oxidation and boron-doped diamond-electro oxidation perform similarly for PFAS mitigation with respect to removal and defluorination, making Ti4O7 electrodes a potentially cheaper alternative for PFAS treatment processes (Lin et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2020). In terms of energy, the EEO for PFOS removal using Ti4O7-electro oxidation was 3.6 kWh/m3 compared to 19.9 kWh/m3 for boron-doped diamond, demonstrating that PFAS removal using Ti4O7- electro oxidation was approximately 80% less energy intensive (Wang et al., 2020)."


"Each tier represents a different foundation of research that needs to be examined in order to progress to the goal of engineering application

  • Tier one research focuses on proof-of-concept research to verify that a technology can work for a specific contaminant.

  • Tier two research focuses on assessing different applications of research and the influence of matrix factors, transformation products, and the costs associated with treatment.

  • Tier three focuses on research explicitly focused on implementation for drinking water treatment and includes studying the impact of environmentally relevant conditions and is validated based on regulatory targets.

  • Finally, the peak of the pyramid is “engineering application” which requires a stable foundation supported by the underlying tiers of research. "

Source: Ryan, D. R., Mayer, B.K., Baldus, C. K., McBeath, S. T., Wang, Y., &McNamara, P. J. (2021). Electrochemical technologies for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances mitigation in drinking water and water treatment residuals. AWWA Water Science, e1249.

View full article here: https://doi.org/10.1002/aws2.1249

Full scale Ti407 Electrochemical for removal of PFAS
Full scale Ti407 Electrochemical Treatment for removal of PFAS

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