About Magneli Materials
Magneli Materials LLC was formed to harness the potential of Magneli Phase Materials. We provide volume supplies of high quality stabilized Magneli Materials in a broad range of grades. We serve as the central point for the dissemination of research and knowledge relating to Magneli Phase materials.
Our goal is to be the leading partner and supplier of choice for Stabilized Ti407.
Magneli Materials leads the development of:
- Advanced anodes utilizing Stabilized Ti407
- Advanced catalysts for anodes coated with Ti407
Over the course of the last two years Magneli Materials has developed:
- The ability to coat numerous substrates with the Ti407 powders including Titanium, Stainless Steel, and Lead.
- The ability to manufacture a Ti407 reactive membrane anode.
We provide support for continued research in this area through collaboration with academic research groups, product developers, and end users.
Magneli Materials LLC has created a novel and superior class of Ti407, Magneli Phase of Titanium Oxide which is substantially different from conventional Magneli Phase materials, such as Ti4O7, Ti5O9, Ti6O11 and trademarked mixtures of these such as Ebonex™.
Benefits of The Magneli Phase of Titanium Oxide:
- Substantially higher content of Ti4O7 (more than 80% Ti407).
- Structural stabilized:
- Nano powder can be massively produced for the first time
- More chemically and electrochemically stable
- Powders are produced in three configurations:
- Nano, Micro, and Coarse Grain powders
Jay Huang and Rob Sterner worked together for over 30 years on various projects in the ceramic industry ranging from facility upgrades, acquisitions, and technology integrations. Magneli Materials is the second LLC founded by the partnership and began when Jay and his team developed a new manufacturing process that could produce large volumes of Ti407, Magneli Phase of Titanium Oxide. This new process allowed for commercialization of the material in ways never before realized, simplifying the process to create large volumes and superior quality while at the same time no longer oxidizing.
Arne Magneli established the study of transition metal sub-oxides and shear plane dislocations. This lead to the discovery of conductive Titanates and Perovskites. Starting in the 1940’s, he examined a variety of transition metal oxide materials to determine why they were lubricious and electrically conductive – they should have been neither.
These early studies were focused on Tungsten and Molybdenum sub-oxides, while his later work transitioned to Titanium sub-oxides (Ti4O7) where he discovered dislocation planes in the crystalline structure. The dislocation planes accounted for their electrical conductivity and lubricious properties, the same mechanism gives rise to graphite and Graphene’s properties:
- Ti4O7, V2O3 are “Magneli Phase” sub-oxides
- MxTyOz are “Magneli Phase” Metal Titanates
Magneli Phase sub-oxides of titanium are ceramic materials which have a graphite-like crystalline structure otherwise known as a Magneli Phase. Magneli Phase sub-oxides of titanium have individually identifiable X-ray diffraction spectra and not simply doped titania or casual mixtures of TiOx. Magneli phase titanium sub-oxides are a range of distinct compounds having a general formula:
TinO2n-1 (n=4 – 10)
(e.g. Ti4O7, Ti5O9, Ti6O11…)
Ti4O7 is by far the best known and most studied Magneli Phase material. Below are some facts on Ti407:
- Ti4O7 is the most reduced Magneli phase. It has Rutile form of TiO2 with every 8th Oxygen removed;
- Ti4O7 has the highest number of shear planes occurring at the shortest spacing of these shear planes.
- Ti4O7 has the highest electrical conductivity and chemical stability among all Magneli phase of titanium suboxides.
- When the n equals to 3 or less, the shear plane accommodation of the octahedra collapses and so does the crystallographic structure from triclinic to monoclinic.
Stabilized Magneli phase materials offer:
- High Corrosion Resistance in Acidic and Basic solutions
- High electrical conductivity
- High electro-chemical stability
Commercial acceptance of Magneli phase materials has been pending cost effective production of mass quantities of stabilized material due to the following:
- Ti407 was expensive and difficult to manufacture in high volume
- The process requires a 2-step process with chemical reduction at >1000C in a H2 filled furnace!
- The Magneli Shear Planes can oxidize using this manufacturing process creates Ti4O7 which can revert to TiO2 when exposed to some conditions
- Shear Plane oxidation limits the forms in which Ti4O7 can be effective
- Nano-scale structures (fibers, films, high surface area) are unstable
- Difficult to apply as a plasma sprayed coating or PVD film
- Makes poor conductive polymers
- Particle size and morphology cannot be fully optimized for long term stability
- Material forms were limited to micro scale powders and ceramic plates and tubes.
Magneli Materials has made commercialization possible by the following:
- Developed a new manufacture process and novel class of more advanced materials through Structural Stabilization of the Magneli Shear Planes
- Novel form of crystalline structure which has another metal atom present, inhibiting the realignment of the Magneli Shear Planes
- Resists conversion to TiO2 when exposed to strong oxidizing conditions
- Greatly expands the forms in which it can be made
- Micro and Nano-scale structure powders
- Plasma sprayed coatings on low cost substrates (Ti , Al and stainless steel)
- High surface area reticulated foams
- Ceramic articles
- Economical to manufacture in high volumes and consistency